Fructose plus High-Salt Diet in Early Life Results in Salt-Sensitive Cardiovascular Changes in Mature Male Sprague Dawley Rats

Peter E., Levanovich, Charles S., Chung, Dragana, Komnenov, Noreen F., Rossi

Nutrients |

Fructose and salt intake remain high, particularly in adolescents and young adults. The present studies were designed to evaluate the impact of high fructose and/or salt during pre- and early adolescence on salt sensitivity, blood pressure, arterial compliance, and left ventricular (LV) function in maturity. Male 5-week-old Sprague Dawley rats were studied over three 3-week phases (Phases I, II, and III). Two reference groups received either 20% glucose + 0.4% NaCl (GCS-GCS) or 20% fructose + 4% NaCl (FHS-FHS) throughout this study. The two test groups ingested fructose + 0.4% NaCl (FCS) or FHS during Phase I, then GCS in Phase II, and were then challenged with 20% glucose + 4% NaCl (GHS) in Phase III: FCS-GHS and FHS-GHS, respectively. Compared with GCS-GCS, systolic and mean pressures were significantly higher at the end of Phase III in all groups fed fructose during Phase I. Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was elevated at the end of Phase I in FHS-GHS and FHS-FHS (vs. GCS-GCS). At the end of Phase III, PWV and renal resistive index were higher in FHS-GHS and FHS-FHS vs. GCS-GCS. Diastolic, but not systolic, LV function was impaired in the FHS-GHS and FHS-FHS but not FCS-FHS rats. Consumption of 20% fructose by male rats during adolescence results in salt-sensitive hypertension in maturity. When ingested with a high-salt diet during this early plastic phase, dietary fructose also predisposes to vascular stiffening and LV diastolic dysfunction in later life.