World Trade Center-Cardiorespiratory and Vascular Dysfunction: Assessing the Phenotype and Metabolome of a Murine Particulate Matter Exposure Model
Arul Veerappan, Assad Oskuei, George Crowley, Mena Mikhail, Dean Ostrofsky, Zakia Gironda, Sandhya Vaidyanathan, Youssef Zaim Wadghiri, Mengling Liu, Sophia Kwon, Anna NolanScientific Reports2020
Vascular changes occur early in the development of obstructive airways disease. However, the vascular remodeling and dysfunction due to World Trade Center-Particulate Matter (WTC-PM) exposure are not well described and are therefore the focus of this investigation. C57Bl/6 female mice oropharyngeally aspirated 200 µg of WTC-PM53 or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (controls). 24-hours (24-hrs) and 1-Month (1-M) after exposure, echocardiography, micro-positron emission tomography(µ-PET), collagen quantification, lung metabolomics, assessment of antioxidant potential and soluble-receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) in bronchoalveolar lavage(BAL) and plasma were performed. 24-hrs post-exposure, there was a significant reduction in (1) Pulmonary artery(PA) flow-velocity and pulmonary ejection time(PET) (2) Pulmonary acceleration time(PAT) and PAT/PET, while (3) Aortic ejection time(AET) and velocity time integral(VTI) were increased, and (4) Aortic acceleration time (AAT)/AET, cardiac output and stroke volume were decreased compared to controls. 1-M post-exposure, there was also significant reduction of right ventricular diameter as right ventricle free wall thickness was increased and an increase in tricuspid E, A peaks and an elevated E/A. The pulmonary and cardiac standard uptake value and volume 1-M post-exposure was significantly elevated after PM-exposure. Similarly, α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA) expression, aortic collagen deposition was elevated 1-M after PM exposure. In assessment of the metabolome, prominent subpathways included advanced glycation end products (AGEs), phosphatidylcholines, sphingolipids, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids, eicosanoids, and phospholipids. BAL superoxide dismutase(SOD), plasma total-antioxidant capacity activity, and sRAGE (BAL and plasma) were elevated after 24-hrs. PM exposure and associated vascular disease are a global health burden. Our study shows persistent WTC-Cardiorespiratory and Vascular Dysfunction (WTC-CaRVD), inflammatory changes and attenuation of antioxidant potential after PM exposure. Early detection of vascular disease is crucial to preventing cardiovascular deaths and future work will focus on further identification of bioactive therapeutic targets.