Ultra‐high frequency ultrasonography (UHFUS)‐guided minor salivary gland biopsy: A promising procedure to optimize labial salivary gland biopsy in Sjögren’s syndrome

Rossana Izzetti, Francesco Ferro, Saverio Vitali, Marco Nisi, Silvia Fonzetti, Teresa Oranges, Valentina Donati, Davide Caramella, Chiara Baldini, Mario Gabriele
Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine2021
Background: Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by an inflammatory infiltrate of exocrine salivary and lachrymal glands. Diagnosis is com- plex, and minor salivary gland biopsy and subsequent focus score (FS) calculation appear of extreme importance in the diagnostic work- up of the disease. Ultra- high frequency ultrasonography (UHFUS) is a recently introduced diagnostic technique, which is gaining an increasingly important role in intraoral imaging. This study aims at exploring the usefulness of UHFUS for obtaining valuable labial salivary gland sam- ples to assess the histopathological features of SS patients. Methods: Patients with clinical suspect of SS and eligible for minor salivary gland biopsy were enrolled. UHFUS scan of the lower lip was performed. Glandular echostructure was classified according to Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) scoring system. The glands to be sampled were selected on the basis of UHFUS evaluation and biopsied. The areas of the samples were recorded and compared with those obtained without UHFUS guidance. The correlation between UHFUS grade and labial gland FS was also assessed. Results: The areas of the samples obtained with UHFUS guidance were signifi- cantly higher (7.25 ± 3.98 mm2) than those obtained by conventional procedures (5.79 ± 3.49 mm2, P = .02). UHFUS correlated significantly with the salivary gland FS (r = .532, P = .001). Conclusion: UHFUS seems a promising tool in SS diagnostic algorithm, being able to provide a valuable support to the biopsy procedure. Further studies are mandatory to confirm the role of UHFUS in SS.

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