Sequential Release of Pooled siRNAs and Paclitaxel by Aptamer-Functionalized Shell-Core Nanoparticles to Overcome Paclitaxel Resistance of Prostate Cancer

Qianqian Guo, Yang Dong, Yanhua Zhang, Hao Fu, Chuanrong Chen, Liting Wang, Xupeng Yang, Ming Shen, Jian Yu, Meiwan Chen, Jiali Zhang, Yourong Duan
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces2021
Paclitaxel (PTX) is a first-line chemotherapeutic agent to treat prostate cancer (PCa), but a large number of patients acquired drug resistance after short-term treatment. To develop combinational therapeutics to overcome PTX-resistant PCa, we established PTX-resistant LNCaP (LNCaP/PTX) cells and found that the LNCaP/PTX cells exhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and enhanced metastasis during the selection process. We revealed that β-tubulin III, androgen receptor, and CXCR4 expressions were significantly increased in LNCaP/PTX cells and directly contributed to PTX resistance and EMT. Therefore, we developed prostate-specific membrane antigen aptamer (Apt)-functionalized shell-core nanoparticles (PTX/siRNAs NPs-Apt); the hydrophobic DSPE encapsulating PTX formed the dense inner core and the hydrophilic Apt-PEG2K with calcium phosphate (CaP) absorbing siRNAs formed the outer shell to sequentially release siRNAs and PTX, where CaP could trigger lysosomal escape to ensure that pooled siRNAs efficiently released into the cytoplasm to reverse EMT and resensitize PTX, while the PTX located in the core was subsequently released to exert the killing effect of chemotherapy to achieve the best synergistic effect. PTX/siRNAs NPs-Apt showed an enhanced tumor-targeting ability and achieved superior efficacy in the subcutaneous and orthotopic PCa tumor model with minimal side effects.
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