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Radial artery remodeling following transradial percutaneous coronary intervention in men and women: insights from serial ultrahigh frequency ultrasonography

Wayne Batchelor, Vishal Dahya, Behnam Tehrani, Abdulla Damluji, Matthew Sherwood, Scott Barnett, Kelly Epps, Alexander Truesdell, Nadim Geloo, John Katopodis, William Dixon, Shahram Yazdani, Thomas Noel
Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine2019
Background: Remodeling of the radial artery (RA) after transradial percutaneous coronary intervention (TRI) is under studied. Objectives: To examine the impact of TRI on RA diameter and intimal-medial thickness (IMT) in men and women using 55 Mhz ultrahigh frequency duplex ultrasound (UHFDU). Methods: We performed UHFDU at 24 h and 90 days after non-emergent TRI in 41 patients (25 men, 16 women). Changes in RA diameter, IMT and RA injury were compared by patient gender. Multivariate linear regression was used to determine the predictors of RA diameter and IMT. Results: Of the 41 patients, mean age was 66 ± 9.8. Baseline RA diameter was larger in men vs. women (3.1 ± 0.40 mm vs. 2.8 mm ± 0.36, p = 0.02), however there were similar reductions in 90-day diameter (−0.57 ± 0.32 mm vs. -0.64 ± 0.40 mm, respectively; p = 0.48). Baseline IMT was also similar in men and women (0.28 ± 0.04 vs. 0.27 ± 0.06 mm; p = 0.37) and there were 0.073 ± 0.11 mm (26%) and 0.05 ± 0.080 mm (19%) increases in IMT noted, respectively (p < 0.0001 vs. baseline, p = 0.48 for men vs. women). Although UHFDU occasionally detected limited access site intimal tears (12%) at 90 days, frank dissections (2.4%), pseudoaneurysms (2.4%) and total occlusions (4.9%) were infrequent. Female gender correlated with smaller RA diameter at follow-up and there were no predictors of IMT. Conclusions: Following TRI, there is a 20% reduction in RA diameter and a 20–25% increase in IMT. Only gender predicted RA diameter. As a simple, noninvasive method to accurately depict the RA healing response following TRI, UHFDU may inform future clinical investigation in this area.
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