Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Endothelial Dysfunction Is Linked to NADPH Oxidase-Derived Superoxide Formation in Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in Mice
Moritz Brandt, Eleni Giokoglu, Venkata Garlapati, Madgalena L. Bochenek, Michael Molitor, Lukas Hobohm, Tanja Schönfelder, Thomas Münzel, Sabine Kossmann, Susanne H Karbach, Katrin Schäfer, Philip WenzelOxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity2018
Pulmonary embolism (PE) results from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and can lead to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) involving vascular dysfunction. Mechanisms are incompletely understood, in part due to lack of mouse models. We induced PE in C57BL/6 mice by intravenous injection of thrombin (166 U/kg BW), confirmed by a sudden bradycardia, bradypnea, and an increase in pulmonary artery (PA) pressure observed by high-frequency ultrasound. While symptoms resolved rapidly after single thrombin application, repeated PEs resulted in sustained PA-pressure increase, increased PA superoxide formation assessed by oxidative fluorescent microtopography, increased PA gp91 phox expression, and endothelial dysfunction assessed by isometric tension studies of isolated PA segments after 24 hours. DVT was modeled in C57BL/6 mice by ligation of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Importantly, small pulmonary emboli could be detected along with a mild phenotype of PA endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the absence of PA-pressure elevation. mRNA expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was increased in PAs of mice with recurrent PE after repetitive thrombin injections and to a lesser extent in DVT mice. In summary, our data suggest that PA endothelial dysfunction, induced by gp91 phox -derived ROS, is an early event upon repetitive PE. This phenomenon might help to elucidate the mechanisms of PA dysfunction in the pathogenesis of CTEPH.