Prophylactic Edaravone Prevents Transient Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury
Yu-yo Sun, Yikun Li, Bushra Wali, Yuancheng Li, Jolly Lee, Andrew Heinmiller, Koji Abe, Donald G. Stein, Hui Mao, Iqbal Sayeed, Chia-Yi KuanStroke2015
Background and Purpose–– Hypoperfusion-induced thrombosis is an important mechanism for postsurgery stroke and cognitive decline, but there are no perioperative neuroprotectants to date. This study investigated whether prophylactic application of Edaravone, a free radical scavenger already used in treating ischemic stroke in Japan, can prevent infarct and cognitive deficits in a murine model of transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. Methods––Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to transient hypoxic-ischemic (tHI) insult that consists of 30-minute occlusion of the unilateral common carotid artery and exposure to 7.5% oxygen. Edaravone or saline was prophylactically applied to compare their effects on cortical oxygen saturation, blood flow, coagulation, oxidative stress, metabolites, and learning-memory using methods that include photoacoustic imaging, laser speckle contrast imaging, solid-state NMR, and Morris water maze. The effects on infarct size by Edaravone application at different time points after tHI were also compared. Results––Prophylactic administration of Edaravone (4.5 mg/kg×2, IP, 1 hour before and 1 hour after tHI) improved vascular reperfusion, oxygen saturation, and the maintenance of brain metabolites, reducing oxidative stress, thrombosis, white- matter injury, and learning impairment after tHI insult. Delayed Edaravone treatment after 3 h post-tHI became unable to reduce infarct size. Conclusions––Acute application of Edaravone may be a useful strategy to prevent postsurgery stroke and cognitive impairment, especially in patients with severe carotid stenosis.