Photoacoustic imaging of myocardial infarction region using non-invasive fibrin-targeted nanoparticles in a rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion model

Yanan Zhang, Xiajing Chen, Lingjuan Liu, Jie Tian, Lan Hao, Hai Tao Ran
International Journal of Nanomedicine2021
Background and Purpose: Myocardial infarction (MI) is a serious threat to public health. The early identification of MI is important to promote appropriate treatment strategies for patients. Recently, strategies targeting extracellular matrix (ECM) components have gained attention. Fibrin is an ECM protein involved after MI. In this work, we constructed fibrin-targeted nanoparticles (NPs) by co-assembling a fibrin-targeted peptide (CREKA) and indocyanine green (ICG) and used them to enhance photoacoustic (PA) imaging for non-invasive detection of the infarct region to help diagnose MI. Methods: ICG NPs modified with CREKA were prepared (CREKA-ICG-LIP NPs). Then, the fundamental characteristics, stability, safety, and targeting ability of the NPs were detected. Finally, in an ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury model, the performance of the NPs in detecting the infarct region in the model on PA imaging was evaluated. Results: CREKA-ICG-LIP NPs were successfully constructed and showed excellent basic characteristics, a high safety level, and an excellent targeting ability. After intravenous injection, the CREKA-ICG-LIP NPs accumulated in the injured region in the IR model. Then, the PA signal in the infarct region could be detected by the ultrasound transducer of the Vevo LAZR Photoacoustic Imaging System. Conclusion: This work provides new insights for non-invasive, real-time imaging techniques to detect the region of myocardial injury and help diagnose MI based on a PA imaging system with high sensitivity in optical imaging and deep penetration in ultrasound imaging.
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