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Persistent reduction in sialylation of cerebral glycoproteins following postnatal inflammatory exposure

Ekaterina P Demina, Wyston C Pierre, Annie L A Nguyen, Irene Londono, Bela Reiz, Chunxia Zou, Radhika Chakraberty, Christopher W Cairo, Alexey V Pshezhetsky, Gregory A Lodygensky
Journal of Neuroinflammation2018
Background: The extension of sepsis encompassing the preterm newborn’s brain is often overlooked due to technical challenges in this highly vulnerable population, yet it leads to substantial long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities. In this study, we demonstrate how neonatal neuroinflammation following postnatal E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in rat pups results in persistent reduction in sialylation of cerebral glycoproteins. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rat pups at postnatal day 3 (P3) were injected in the corpus callosum with saline or LPS. Twenty-four hours (P4) or 21 days (P24) following injection, brains were extracted and analyzed for neuraminidase activity and expression as well as for sialylation of cerebral glycoproteins and glycolipids. Results: At both P4 and P24, we detected a significant increase of the acidic neuraminidase activity in LPS-exposed rats. It correlated with significantly increased neuraminidase 1 (Neu1) mRNA in LPS-treated brains at P4 and with neuraminidases 1and4atP24 suggesting that theseenzymes were responsiblefortheriseofneuraminidase activity. At both P4 and P24, sialylation of N-glycans on brain glycoproteins decreased according to both mass- spectrometry analysis and lectin blotting, but the ganglioside composition remained intact. Finally, at P24, analysis of brain tissues by immunohistochemistry showed that neurons in the upper layers (II–III) of somatosensory cortex had a reduced surface content of polysialic acid. Conclusions: Together, our data demonstrate that neonatal LPS exposure results in specific and sustained induction of Neu1 and Neu4, causing long-lasting negative changes in sialylation of glycoproteins on brain cells. Considering the important roles played by sialoglycoproteins in CNS function, we speculate that observed re-programming of the brain sialome constitutes an important part of pathophysiological consequences in perinatal infectious exposure.
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