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Ozone exposure during implantation increases serum bioactivity in HTR-8/SVneo trophoblasts

Colette N Miller, Erica J Stewart, Samantha J Snow, Wanda C Williams, Judy H Richards, Leslie C Thompson, Mette C Schladweiler, Aimen K Farraj, Urmila P Kodavanti, Janice A Dye
Toxicological Sciences2019
Implantation is a sensitive window in reproductive development during which disruptions may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes including intrauterine growth restriction. Ozone exposure during implantation in rats reduces fetal weight near the end of gestation, potentially though impaired trophoblast migration and invasion and altered implantation. The current study characterized changes in ventilation, pulmonary injury, and circulating factors including hormonal, inflammatory, and metabolic markers related to exposure to ozone (0.4 - 1.2 ppm) for 4-hours on gestation days 5 and 6 (window of implantation) in Long-Evans dams. To determine the effects of this exposure on trophoblast function, placental-derived, first trimester, HTR-8/SVneo cells were exposed to serum from air- or ozone (0.8 ppm x 4-hours)-exposed dams and examined for impacts on metabolic capacity, wound-closure, and invasion. Peri-implantation exposure to ozone induced ventilatory dysfunction and lung vascular leakage in pregnant rats, with little effect on most of the circulating markers measured. However, ozone inhalation induced a significant reduction in several serum cytokines (interferon-γ, interleukin-6, and interleukin-13). Treatment of HTR-8/SVneo trophoblasts with serum from ozone-exposed dams for 16-hours downregulated metabolic capacity, wound-closure, and invasion through a Matrigel membrane compared to both air-serum and FBS-treated cells. Ozone-serum treated cells increased the release of a critical inhibitor of invasion and angiogenesis (soluble fms-like receptor 1; sFlt1) compared to air-serum treatment. Together, our data suggest that circulating factors in the serum of pregnant rats exposed to ozone during implantation receptivity can hinder critical processes of implantation (e.g. invasion and migration) and impair trophoblast metabolic capacity.
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