A multimodal molecular imaging approach targeting urokinase plasminogen activator receptor for the diagnosis, resection and surveillance of urothelial cell carcinoma
Victor M. Baart, Geertje van der Horst, Marion M. Deken, Shadhvi S. Bhairosingh, Timo Schomann, Vincent Q. Sier, Maaike H. van der Mark, Luisa Iamele, Hugo de Jonge, Massimo Resnati, Andrew P. Mazar, Rob C.M. Pelger, Gabriel van der Pluijm, Peter J.K. Kuppen, Alexander L. Vahrmeijer, Cornelis F.M. SierEuropean Journal of Cancer2021
With a 5-year recurrence rate of 30–78%, urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) rates amongst the highest of all solid malignancies. Consequently, after transurethral resection, patients are subjugated to life-long endoscopic surveillance. A multimodal near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence-based imaging strategy can improve diagnosis, resection and surveillance, hence increasing quality of life. Methods: Expression of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) are determined on paraffin-embedded human UCC using immunohistochemistry and on UCC cell lines by flow cytometry. MNPR-101, a humanised monoclonal antibody targeting uPAR is conjugated to IRDye800CW and binding is validated in vitro using surface plasmon resonance and cell-based binding assays. In vivo NIR fluorescence and photoacoustic three-dimensional (3D) imaging are performed with subcutaneously growing human UM-UC-3luc2 cells in BALB/c-nude mice. The translational potential is confirmed in a metastasising UM-UC-3luc2 orthotopic mouse model. Infliximab-IRDye800CW and rituximab-IRDye800CW are used as controls. Results: UCCs show prominent uPAR expression at the tumour-stroma interface and EpCAM on epithelial cells. uPAR and EpCAM are expressed by 6/7 and 4/7 UCC cell lines, respectively. In vitro, MNPR-101-IRDye800CW has a picomolar affinity for domain 2-3 of uPAR. In vivo fluorescence imaging with MNPR-101-IRDye800CW, specifically delineates both subcutaneous and orthotopic tumours with tumour-to-background ratios reaching as high as 6.8, differing significantly from controls (p < 0.0001). Photoacoustic 3D in depth imaging confirms the homogenous distribution of MNPR-101-IRDye800CW through the tumour. Conclusions: MNPR-101-IRDye800CW is suitable for multimodal imaging of UCC, awaiting clinical translation.