Morphological, functional, and molecular assessment of breast cancer bone metastases by experimental ultrasound techniques compared with magnetic resonance imaging and histological analysis
Henrik Heinen, Lisa Seyler, Vanessa Popp, Konstantin Hellwig, Aline Bozec, Michael Uder, Stephan Ellmann, Tobias BäuerleBone2021
Background: The imaging of bone metastases, which is regularly performed by cross-sectional modalities, is clinically vital when characterizing and staging osseous lesions. In this paper, we aimed to establish a novel methodology using experimental ultrasound (US) techniques to assess the morphological, functional, and molecular features of breast cancer bone metastases in an animal model, compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological analysis. Materials and methods: Nude rats were implanted intra-arterially with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to induce osteolytic metastasis in their right hind legs. Once tumors had developed, an experimental US technique using automatic 3D scanning and MRI were performed. For assessment of perfusion, functional imaging techniques included contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). For molecular ultrasound, anti-VEGFR2 conjugated microbubbles were applied and correlated with immunostaining for VEGFR2 expression. Results: 3D US enabled the automatic assessment of osteolytic lesions, including the largest tumor diameters along the x-, y- and z-axes as well as the segmented tumor volumes, without significant differences between US and MRI (p > 0.18). The CEUS and DCE-MRI of osseous lesions showed corresponding results for the parameters peak enhancement, wash-in area under the curve (both, r > 0.5) and wash-in perfusion index (r > 0.3) when differentiating between tumor, necrotic tissue and healthy muscle tissue (all, p < 0.01). Finally, molecular US allowed the non-invasive assessment of increased VEGFR2 expression in skeletal lesions compared with surrounding muscle tissue (p = 0.03), while a control antibody could not discriminate between these tissues (p = 0.44)—a factor which was confirmed by histological analysis. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on an imaging protocol for breast cancer bone metastasis using an experimental US scanner. Therefore, we present a novel methodology to characterize these osseous lesions on the morphological, functional, and molecular level in correlation with MRI and histological analysis.