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Mitochondrial Dynamics in Rat Heart Induced by 5-Fluorouracil

Dongxia Zhang, Jingtao Ma
Medical Science Monitor2018
Patients treated with 5-FU can develop rare but potentially severe cardiac effects, including cardiomyopa- thy, angina pectoris, ventricular tachycardia, heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, and cardiogenic shock. The specific pathologies and mechanisms are not fully understood. Research found that mitochondrial dynamics are widely detected in many angiocardiopathies. Therefore, in the present study we studied the mitochondrial damage and explored the role of mitochondrial fusion/fission proteins on myocardium of rats treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Thirty male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups with 10 rats in each group: (1) control group, (2) low 5-FU group (25 mg/kg), (3) high 5-FU group (50 mg/kg). The animals received intraperitoneal injection for 5 consecutive days. We assessed alterations in mitochondrial morphology, ATP content, mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondria fusion/fission proteins expression in hearts of rats receiving intraperitoneal injec- tion with different doses of 5-FU. 5-FU intraperitoneal injection induced ultra-structural damage in hearts, such as mitochondrial swelling, cris- tae disorder, and vacuolization. These changes were accompanied by decreases of mitochondrial membrane potential. The low dose of 5-FU led to a slight increase in ATP content. However, the high 5-FU dose caused a more significant reduction compared with the control group. Furthermore, 5-FU intraperitoneal injection sig- nificantly increased specific mitochondrial fission proteins (Drp1 and Fis1) and decreased mitochondrial fusion proteins (Opa1, Mfn1, and Mfn2) in rat hearts. However, no changes in cardiac structure and function were detected by echocardiogram. The high dose caused more damage to mitochondrial function than the low dose. Mitochondrial damage is a potentially important mechanism and early indicator for 5-FU-induced cardiovas- cular disease.
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