Integration of Polymerization and Biomineralization as a Strategy to Facilely Synthesize Nanotheranostic Agents
Bing Xiao, Xiaoxuan Zhou, Hongxia Xu, Bihan Wu, Ding Hu, Hongjie Hu, Kanyi Pu, Zhuxian Zhou, Xiangrui Liu, Jianbin Tang, Youqing ShenACS Nano2018
Integration of biological macromolecules with inorganic materials via biomineralization has demon- strated great potential for development of nanotheranostic agents. To produce multifunctionality, integration of multiple components in the biomineralized theranostic agents is required; however, how to efficiently and reproducibly implement this is challenging. In this report, a universal biomineralization strategy is developed by incorporation of oxidization polymerization into albumin- templated biomineralization for facile synthesis of nano- theranostic agents. A series of biomineralized polymers and manganese dioxide hybrid nanoparticles (PMHNs) can be synthesized via the polymerization of various monomers, including dopamine (DA), epigallocatechin (EGC), pyrrole (PY), and diaminopyridine (DP), along with the reduction of KMnO4 and formation of manganese dioxide nanoparticles in albumin templates. These biomineralized PMHNs demonstrate ultrahigh MRI (longitudinal relaxivity up to 38 mM−1 s−1) and ultrasonic (US) imaging contrasting capabilities and have excellent photothermal therapy efficacy with complete ablation of orthotopic tumors. Moreover, these biomineralized hybrid nanoparticles can be effectively excreted through the kidneys, avoiding potential systemic toxicity. Thus, integration of polymerization into biomineralization presents a strategy for the fabrication of hybrid nanomaterials, allowing the production of multifunctional and biocompatible nanotheranostic agents via a facile one-pot method.