Inflammation in rat pregnancy inhibits spiral artery remodeling leading to fetal growth restriction and features of preeclampsia

Tiziana Cotechini, Maria Komisarenko, Arissa Sperou, Shannyn Macdonald-Goodfellow, Michael a. Adams, Charles H. Graham
The Journal of Experimental Medicine2014
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preeclampsia (PE) are often associated with abnormal maternal inflammation, deficient spiral artery (SA) remodeling, and altered uteroplacental perfusion. Here, we provide evidence of a novel mechanistic link between abnormal mater- nal inflammation and the development of FGR with features of PE. Using a model in which pregnant rats are administered low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on gestational days 13.5– 16.5, we show that abnormal inflammation resulted in FGR mediated by tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF). Inflammation was also associated with deficient trophoblast invasion and SA remodeling, as well as with altered uteroplacental hemodynamics and placental nitrosa- tive stress. Moreover, inflammation increased maternal mean arterial pressure (MAP) and was associated with renal structural alterations and proteinuria characteristic of PE. Finally, transdermal administration of the nitric oxide (NO) mimetic glyceryl trinitrate prevented altered uteroplacental perfusion, LPS-induced inflammation, placental nitrosa- tive stress, renal structural and functional alterations, increase in MAP, and FGR. These findings demonstrate that maternal inflammation can lead to severe pregnancy complica- tions via a mechanism that involves increased maternal levels of TNF. Our study provides a rationale for the use of antiinflammatory agents or NO-mimetics in the treatment and/or prevention of inflammation-associated pregnancy complications.
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