Enhancing sustained-release local therapy: Single versus dual chemotherapy for the treatment of neuroblastoma
Jordan S. Taylor, Burcin Yavuz, Jasmine Zeki, Lauren Wood, Naohiko Ikegaki, Jeannine Coburn, Kristin Harrington, Hiroyuki Shimada, David L. Kaplan, Bill ChiuSurgery2020
Background: Neuroblastoma is the most common pediatric extracranial solid malignancy with limited effective treatment. We have shown that sustained-release, single drugs delivered locally through a silk-based biomaterial are effective in decreasing orthotopic neuroblastoma xenograft growth. We further optimized this approach and hypothesized that increasing doses of local chemotherapy or delivering 2 chemotherapeutic agents simultaneously inhibit additional tumor growth. Methods: MYCN-amplified and non-MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells were treated with combinations of cisplatin, vincristine, doxorubicin, and etoposide to determine cytotoxicity and synergy. Drug-loaded silk material was created, and the amounts of drug released from the material over time were recorded. Murine orthotopic neuroblastoma xenografts were generated; tumors were implanted with single- or dual-agent chemotherapy-loaded silk. Ultrasound was used to monitor tumor growth, and tumor histology was evaluated. Results: In vitro, vincristine/cisplatin combination was synergistic and significantly decreased cell viability relative to other combinations. Both drugs loaded into silk could be released effectively for over 2 weeks. Locally implanted vincristine/cisplatin silk induced increased tumor growth suppression compared with either agent alone in MYCN-amplified tumors (P < .05). The dose-dependent effect seen in MYCN-amplified tumors treated with combination therapy diminished at higher doses in non-MYCN-amplified tumors, with little benefit with doses >50 μg to 500 μg for vincristine-cisplatin, respectively. Tumor histology demonstrated tumor cell necrosis adjacent to drug-loaded silk material and presence of large cell neuroblastoma. Conclusion: Local delivery of sustained release chemotherapy can suppress tumor growth especially at high doses or with 2 synergistic drugs. Locally delivered dual therapy is a promising approach for future clinical testing.