The endothelial tumor suppressor p53 is essential for venous thrombus formation in aged mice
Magdalena L Bochenek, Tobias Bauer, Rajinikanth Gogiraju, Yona Nadir, Amrit Mann, Tanja Schönfelder, Leonie Hünig, Benjamin Brenner, Thomas Münzel, Philip Wenzel, Stavros Konstantinides, Katrin SchäferBlood Advances2018
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly people. Increased expression of tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53) has been implicated in vascular senescence. Here, we examined the importance of endothelial p53 for venous thrombosis and whether endothelial senescence and p53 overexpression are involved in the exponential increase of VTE with age. Mice with conditional, endothelial-specific deletion of p53 (End.p53-KO) and their wild-type littermates (End.p53-WT) underwent subtotal inferior vena cava (IVC) ligation to induce venous thrombosis. IVC ligation in aged (12-month-old) End.p53-WT mice resulted in higher rates of thrombus formation and greater mean thrombus size vs adult (12-week-old) End.p53-WT mice, whereas aged End.p53-KO mice were protected from vein thrombosis. Analysis of primary endothelial cells from aged mice or human vein endothelial cells after induction of replicative senescence revealed significantly increased early growth response gene-1 (Egr1) and heparanase expression, and plasma factor Xa levels were elevated in aged End.p53-WT, but not in End.p53-KO mice. Increased endothelial Egr1 and heparanase expression also was observed after doxorubicin-induced p53 overexpression, whereas p53 inhibition using pifithrin-a reduced tissue factor (TF) expression. Importantly, inhibition of heparanase activity using TF pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI2) peptides prevented the enhanced venous thrombus formation in aged mice and restored it to the thrombotic phenotype of adult mice. Our findings suggest that p53 accumulation and heparanase overexpression in senescent endothelial cells are critically involved in mediating the increased risk of venous thrombosis with age and that heparanase antagonization may be explored as strategy to ameliorate the prothrombotic endothelial phenotype with age.