Dual inhibition of sodium–glucose linked cotransporters 1 and 2 exacerbates cardiac dysfunction following experimental myocardial infarction
Kim A. Connelly, Yanling Zhang, Jean-François Desjardins, Kerri Thai, Richard E. GilbertCardiovascular Diabetology2018
Background: Inhibiting both type 1 and 2 sodium–glucose linked cotransporter (SGLT1/2) offers the potential to not only increase glucosuria beyond that seen with selective SGLT2 inhibition alone but to reduce glucose absorption from the gut and to thereby also stimulate glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion. However, beyond the kidney and gut, SGLT1 is expressed in a range of other organs particularly the heart where it potentially assists GLUT-mediated glucose transport. Since cardiac myocytes become more reliant on glucose as a fuel source in the setting of stress, the present study sought to compare the effects of dual SGLT1/2 inhibition with selective SGLT2 inhibition in the normal and diseased heart. Methods: Fischer F344 rats underwent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery or sham ligation before being randomized to receive the dual SGLT1/2 inhibitor, T-1095, the selective SGLT2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin or vehicle. In addition to measuring laboratory parameters, animals also underwent echocardiography and cardiac catheterization to assess systolic and diastolic function in detail. Results: When compared with rats that had received either vehicle or dapagliflozin, T-1095 exacerbated cardiac dys- function in the post myocardial infarction setting. In addition to higher lung weights, T-1095 treated rats had evidence of worsened systolic function with lower ejection fractions and reduction in the rate of left ventricle pressure rise in early systole (dP/dtmax). Diastolic function was also worse in animals that had received T-1095 with prolongation of the time constant for isovolumic-pressure decline (Tau) and an increase in the end-diastolic pressure volume relationship, indices of the active, energy-dependent and passive phases of cardiac relaxation. Conclusions: The exacerbation of post myocardial infarction cardiac dysfunction with T-1095 in the experimental setting suggests the need for caution with the use of dual SGLT1/2 inhibitors in humans.