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Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity is suppressed by estrous-staged treatment and exogenous 17β-estradiol in female tumor-bearing spontaneously hypertensive rats

Kaytee L Pokrzywinski, Thomas G Biel, Elliot T Rosen, Julia L Bonanno, Baikuntha Aryal, Francesca Mascia, Delaram Moshkelani, Steven Mog, V Ashutosh Rao
Biology of Sex Differences2018
Background: Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline therapeutic, is widely used to treat a variety of cancer types and known to induce cardiomyopathy in a time and dose-dependent manner. Postmenopausal and hypertensive females are two high-risk groups for developing adverse effects following DOX treatment. This may suggest that endogenous reproductive hormones can in part suppress DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Here, we investigated if the endogenous fluctuations in 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) can in part suppress DOX-induced cardiomyopathy in SST-2 tumor-bearing spontaneously hypersensitive rats (SHRs) and evaluate if exogenous administration of E2 and P4 can suppress DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in tumor-bearing ovariectomized SHRs (ovaSHRs). Methods: Vaginal cytology was performed on all animals to identify the stage of the estrous cycle. Estrous-staged SHRs received a single injection of saline, DOX, dexrazoxane (DRZ), or DOX combined with DRZ. OvaSHRs were implanted with time-releasing pellets that contained a carrier matrix (control), E2, P4, Tamoxifen (Tam), and combinations of E2 with P4 and Tam. Hormone pellet-implanted ovaSHRs received a single injection of saline or DOX. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI), E2, and P4 serum concentrations were measured before and after treatment in all animals. Cardiac damage and function were further assessed by echocardiography and histopathology. Weight, tumor size, and uterine width were measured for all animals. Results: In SHRs, estrous-staged DOX treatment altered acute estrous cycling that ultimately resulted in prolonged diestrus. Twelve days after DOX administration, all SHRs had comparable endogenous circulating E2. Thirteen days after DOX treatment, SHRs treated during proestrus had decreased cardiac output and increased cTnI as compared to animals treated during estrus and diestrus. DOX-induced tumor reduction was not affected by estrous-staged treatments. In ovaSHRs, exogenous administration of E2 suppressed DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, while P4-implanted ovaSHRs were partly resistant. However, ovaSHRs treated with E2 and P4 did not have cardioprotection against DOX- induced damage. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that estrous-staged treatments can alter the extent of cardiac damage caused by DOX in female SHRs. The study also supports that exogenous E2 can suppress DOX-induced myocardial damage in ovaSHRs.
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