Commercial 4-dimensional echocardiography for murine heart volumetric evaluation after myocardial infarction
Cody Rutledge, George Cater, Brenda McMahon, Lanping Guo, Seyed Mehdi Nouraie, Yijen Wu, Flordeliza Villanueva, Brett A. KaufmanCardiovascular Ultrasound2020
Background: Traditional preclinical echocardiography (ECHO) modalities, including 1-dimensional motion-mode (M-Mode) and 2-dimensional long axis (2D-US), rely on geometric and temporal assumptions about the heart for volumetric measurements. Surgical animal models, such as the mouse coronary artery ligation (CAL) model of myocardial infarction, result in morphologic changes that do not fit these geometric assumptions. New ECHO technology, including 4-dimensional ultrasound (4D-US), improves on these traditional models. This paper aims to compare commercially available 4D-US to M-mode and 2D-US in a mouse model of CAL. Methods: 37 mice underwent CAL surgery, of which 32 survived to a 4 week post-operative time point. ECHO was completed at baseline, 1 week, and 4 weeks after CAL. M-mode, 2D-US, and 4D-US were taken at each time point and evaluated by two separate echocardiographers. At 4 weeks, a subset (n = 12) of mice underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to serve as a reference standard. End systolic volume (ESV), end diastolic volume (EDV), and ejection fraction (EF) were compared among imaging modalities. Hearts were also collected for histologic evaluation of scar size (n = 16) and compared to ECHO-derived wall motion severity index (WMSI) and global longitudinal strain as well as gadolinium-enhanced CMR to compare scar assessment modalities. Results: 4D-US provides close agreement of ESV (Bias: -2.55%, LOA: − 61.55 to 66.66) and EF (US Bias: 11.23%, LOA − 43.10 to 102.8) 4 weeks after CAL when compared to CMR, outperforming 2D-US and M-mode estimations. 4D-US has lower inter-user variability as measured by intraclass correlation (ICC) in the evaluation of EDV (0.91) and ESV (0.93) when compared to other modalities. 4D-US also allows for rapid assessment of WMSI, which correlates strongly with infarct size by histology (r = 0.77). Conclusion: 4D-US outperforms M-Mode and 2D-US for volumetric analysis 4 weeks after CAL and has higher inter- user reliability. 4D-US allows for rapid calculation of WMSI, which correlates well with histologic scar size.