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Cilostazol ameliorates heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and diastolic dysfunction in obese and non-obese hypertensive mice

Sukka Santosh Reddy, Heena Agarwal, Manoj Kumar Barthwal
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology2018
Cilostazol (Ciloz) a potent Type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor is effective against inflammation, insulin resistance and cardiomyopathy. However, the effect of Ciloz on obesity-associated left ventricular diastolic dysfunction has not been explored yet. Hence, we examined the effect of Ciloz on cardiac remodelling and dysfunction in non-obese and obese-insulin resistant mice infused with AngiotensinII (AngII). Male C57BL/6 J mice were initially subjected to 19 weeks of chow or high fat diet (HFD) regimen and thereafter animals were randomised for AngII (1500 ng/kg/min, s.c) infusion or saline and Ciloz (50 mg/kg, p.o) for another 1 week. Obese and non-obese mice infused with AngII exhibited significant diastolic dysfunction and features of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) since a decrease in fractional shortening and no change in ejection fraction were observed when compared with respective controls. Administration of AngII and Ciloz in HFD fed mice significantly improved the left ventricular function compared with AngII infused HFD mice as evinced from the echocardiographic data. Further, Ciloz treatment significantly reduced cardiomyocyte area, interstitial and perivascular fibrosis; and collagen deposition. Moreover, Ciloz reduced the inflammatory milieu in the heart as evinced by decreased F4/80+and CD68+cells; IL-1β and IL-6 gene transcripts. Quantitative assessment of the expression levels revealed substantial upregulation of MMP-9 (pro- and mature-forms) and α-SMA in the left ventricle of AngII infused HFD-fed mice, which was considerably suppressed by Ciloz regimen. The beneficial effect of Ciloz was associated with the normalization in gene expression of hypertrophic and fibrotic markers. Likewise, Ciloz administration markedly reduced the AngII and HFD induced TGF-β1/SMAD3 and Akt/mTOR signalling. Additionally, AngII administered and HFD-fed mice showed increased glycolytic flux, which was considerably diminished by Ciloz treatment as indicated from suppressed PKM2, HK-2, PDK-2, HIF-1α mRNA and GLUT-1 protein expression. Taken together, Ciloz might be therapeutically exploited against AngII and obesity-associated diastolic dysfunction thereby preventing overt heart failure.
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