Casein-enhanced uptake and disease-modifying bioactivity of ingested extracellular vesicles
Mark A. Aminzadeh, Mario Fournier, Akbarshakh Akhmerov, K. Candis Jones-Ungerleider, Jackelyn B. Valle, Eduardo MarbánJournal of Extracellular Vesicles2021
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from cardiac stromal cells, developed as therapeutic candidates, improve dystrophic muscle function when administered parenterally, but oral delivery remains untested. We find that casein, the dominant protein in breast milk, enhances the uptake and bioactivity of ingested heart-derived EVs, altering gene expression in blood cells and enhancing muscle function in mdx mice with muscular dystrophy. Thus, EVs, administered orally, are absorbed and exert disease-modifying bioactivity in vivo. Formulating EVs with casein enhances uptake and markedly expands the range of potential therapeutic applications.