Calligonum comosum (Escanbil) extract exerts anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects on endometriotic lesions
Kiandokht Kiani, Jeannette Rudzitis-Auth, Claudia Scheuer, Mansoureh Movahedin, Seyede Nargess Sadati Lamardi, Hossein Malekafzali Ardakani, Vivien Becker, Ashraf Moini, Reza Aflatoonian, Seyed Nasser Ostad, Michael D. Menger, Matthias W. LaschkeJournal of Ethnopharmacology2019
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Calligonum comosum is a desert plant that is applied in traditional folkloric medicine for the treatment of abnormally heavy or prolonged menstruation and menstrual cramps. Moreover, it has been suggested for the treatment of infertility-causing conditions. Its bioactive chemical constituents inhibit multiple processes, such as angiogenesis, inflammation and invasive tissue growth, which may be beneficial in the therapy of endometriosis. Aim of the study: We investigated the effects of Calligonum comosum on the development of endometriotic lesions. Materials and methods: We evaluated the anti-angiogenic activity of Calligonum comosum ethyl acetate fraction (CCEAF) in different in vitro angiogenesis assays. Moreover, we surgically induced endometriotic lesions in BALB/c mice, which received 50 mg/kg Calligonum comosum total extract (CCTE) or vehicle (control) over 4 weeks. The growth, cyst formation, vascularization and immune cell infiltration of the lesions were assessed with high-resolution ultrasound imaging, caliper measurements, histology and immunohistochemistry. Results: CCEAF doses of up to 10 μg/mL did not impair the viability of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC), but dose-dependently suppressed their migration, tube formation and sprouting, indicating a substantial anti-angiogenic effect of CCEAF. Furthermore, CCTE significantly inhibited the growth and cyst formation of developing murine endometriotic lesions when compared to vehicle-treated controls. This was associated with a reduced vascularization, cell proliferation and immune cell infiltration. Conclusions: Our findings show that Calligonum comosum targets multiple, fundamental processes in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, which may be beneficial for the treatment of this common gynecological disorder.