Calenduloside e Ameliorates Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury through Regulation of AMPK and Mitochondrial OPA1
Min Wang, Rui Ying Wang, Jia Hui Zhou, Xue Heng Xie, Gui Bo Sun, Xiao Bo SunOxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity2020
Calenduloside E (CE) is a natural triterpenoid saponin isolated from Aralia elata (Miq.) Seem., a well-known traditional Chinese medicine. Our previous studies have shown that CE exerts cardiovascular protective effects both in vivo and in vitro. However, its role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI) and the mechanism involved are currently unknown. Mitochondrial dynamics play a key role in MIRI. This study investigated the effects of CE on mitochondrial dynamics and the signaling pathways involved in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R). The MI/R rat model and the hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) cardiomyocyte model were established in this study. CE exerted significant cardioprotective effects in vivo and in vitro by improving cardiac function, decreasing myocardial infarct size, increasing cardiomyocyte viability, and inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis associated with MI/R. Mechanistically, CE restored mitochondrial homeostasis against MI/R injury through improved mitochondrial ultrastructure, enhanced ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential, and reduced mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening, while promoting mitochondrial fusion and preventing mitochondrial fission. However, genetic silencing of OPA1 by siRNA abolished the beneficial effects of CE on cardiomyocyte survival and mitochondrial dynamics. Moreover, we demonstrated that CE activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and treatment with the AMPK inhibitor, compound C, abolished the protective effects of CE on OPA1 expression and mitochondrial function. Overall, this study demonstrates that CE is effective in mitigating MIRI by modulating AMPK activation-mediated OPA1-related mitochondrial fusion.