Assessing vesicoureteral reflux in live inbred mice via ultrasound with a microbubble contrast agent
Jose Paredes, Sunder Sims-Lucas, Hang Wang, Weining Lu, Brian Coley, George K Gittes, Carlton M BatesAJP: Renal Physiology2011
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common pediatric anomaly linked to renal scarring and hypertension. Although there are many mouse VUR models, cystograms have previously only been performed in euthanized animals, thus preventing serial assessments for VUR in the same animal and not delineating "live" physiology. Our purpose was to develop a live murine cystogram assay that could be used serially to track reflux. We injected microbubbles via transurethral catheters into bladders of C57BL6/J and C3H/HeJ inbred mouse strains that are known to have low and high VUR rates, respectively. We performed ultrasound to visualize microbubbles in the renal pelvis to determine feasibility of the procedure. We then repeated the microbubble ultrasound using a transducer allowing for visualization of both kidneys and ureters simultaneously and for 3 dimensional (3D) reconstruction. We then performed "euthanized" cystograms on all mice for comparison. C3H/HeJ mice had a strong and persistent microbubble signal in the renal pelvis and ureters bilaterally with low-contrast infusion volumes (<100 μl) and similarly showed bilateral reflux by euthanized cystograms. With larger infused volumes (≥150 μl), C57BL6/J mice had small volumes of microbubbles in the renal pelvis that cleared quickly and did not show reflux on euthanized cystograms. Thus, using animal models of known VUR, we demonstrate the utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound to visualize reflux in live mice.