Anti-atherogenic effect of 10% supplementation of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) waste protein hydrolysates in apoe-deficient mice

Jessica Maria Abbate, Francesco Macrì, Francesca Arfuso, Carmelo Iaria, Fabiano Capparucci, Carmelo Anfuso, Antonio Ieni, Luca Cicero, Giovanni Briguglio, Giovanni Lanteri
Fish protein consumption exerts beneficial metabolic effects on human health, also correlat-ing with a decreased risk for cardiovascular disease. Fish waste contains high amount of proteins and utilization may offer the opportunity for generating compounds advantageous for human health. Especially, fish waste protein hydrolysates beneficially influence pathways involved in body compo-sition, exerting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, making their potential supplementation in human disorders of increased interest. This study assessed the effect of a 10% (w/w) anchovy waste protein hydrolysate (APH) diet for 12 weeks in reducing atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice, through histological and immunohistochemical methods. In addition, monitoring of plaque development was performed, using high-frequency ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Overall, the APH diet attenuated atherosclerotic plaque development, producing a regression of arterial lesions over time (p < 0.05). Twelve weeks on an APH diet had an anti-obesity effect, improving lipid metabolism and reducing hepatic enzyme activity. A significant reduction in plaque size and lipid content was observed in the aortic sinus of APH-fed mice, compared to the control (p < 0.001), whereas no differences in the extracellular matrix and macrophage recruitment were observed. Supplementation of APH significantly attenuates atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice, exerting a lipid-lowering activity. The opportunity to use fish waste protein hydrolysates as a nutraceutical in atherosclerosis is worthy of future investigations, representing a low cost, sustainable, and nutritional strategy with minimal environmental impact.

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