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Advanced ultrasound techniques for pediatric imaging

Misun Hwang, MacIej Piskunowicz, Kassa Darge
Ultrasound has become a useful tool in the workup of pediatric patients abstract because of the highly convenient, cost-effective, and safe nature of the examination. With rapid advancements in anatomic and functional ultrasound techniques over the recent years, the diagnostic and interventional utility of ultrasound has risen tremendously. Advanced ultrasound techniques constitute a suite of new technologies that employ microbubbles to provide contrast and enhance flow visualization, elastography to measure tissue stiffness, ultrafast Doppler to deliver high spatiotemporal resolution of flow, three- and four-dimensional technique to generate accurate spatiotemporal representation of anatomy, and high-frequency imaging to delineate anatomic structures at a resolution down to 30 mm. Application of these techniques can enhance the diagnosis of organ injury, viable tumor, and vascular pathologies at bedside. This has significant clinical implications in pediatric patients who are not easy candidates for lengthy MRI or radiation-requiring examination, and are also in need of a highly sensitive bedside technique for therapeutic guidance. To best use the currently available, advanced ultrasound techniques for pediatric patients, it is necessary to understand the diagnostic utility of each technique. In this review, we will educate the readers of emerging ultrasound techniques and their respective clinical applications.

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