2H,3H-Decafluoropentane-Based Nanodroplets: New Perspectives for Oxygen Delivery to Hypoxic Cutaneous Tissues

Mauro Prato, Chiara Magnetto, Jithin Jose, Amina Khadjavi, Federica Cavallo, Elena Quaglino, Alice Panariti, Ilaria Rivolta, Emilio Benintende, Gianfranco Varetto, Monica Argenziano, Adriano Troia, Roberta Cavalli, Caterina Guiot
Perfluoropentane (PFP)-based oxygen-loaded nanobubbles (OLNBs) were previously pro- posed as adjuvant therapeutic tools for pathologies of different etiology sharing hypoxia as a common feature, including cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. Here we introduce a new platform of oxygen nanocarriers, based on 2H,3H-decafluoropentane (DFP) as core fluoro- carbon. These new nanocarriers have been named oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNDs) since DFP is liquid at body temperature, unlike gaseous PFP. Dextran-shelled OLNDs, available either in liquid or gel formulations, display spherical morphology, ~600 nm diame- ters, anionic charge, good oxygen carrying capacity, and no toxic effects on human kerati- nocytes after cell internalization. In vitro OLNDs result more effective in releasing oxygen to hypoxic environments than former OLNBs, as demonstrated by analysis through oxymetry. In vivo, OLNDs effectively enhance oxy-hemoglobin levels, as emerged from investigation by photoacoustic imaging. Interestingly, ultrasound (US) treatment further improves trans- dermal oxygen release from OLNDs. Taken together, these data suggest that US-activated, DFP-based OLNDs might be innovative, suitable and cost-effective devices to topically treat hypoxia-associated pathologies of the cutaneous tissues.

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